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Quotes by James Fowler


Discern commonality of spirits.

1. Is this person spiritually regenerated (John 3:1-6)?

2. Take time to observe their values and attitudes (Matt. 7:16).

3. Will they pray with you? Study Scripture? Attend church?

4. Seek counsel of pastor or spiritual leader.

Determine correlation of minds.

1. Are there common interests?

2. Do you share “the mind which is in Christ Jesus” (Phil. 2:5)?

3. Is there common desire to “renew the mind” (Rom. 12:2; Eph. 4:23)?

Discover concerns of emotions.

1. Don’t start with “feelings;” these should be by-product.

2. Are your affections directed toward the highest well-being of the other person?

3. Do you detect anger, fear, jealousy, pride, etc.?

Develop commitments of wills.

1. Are there common objectives and priorities?

2. Discuss short-range and long-range goals. Career choices.

3. Is there a mutual decision to follow God’s leading together?

Desire companionship of bodily presence.

1. Desire to share recreation, entertainment, social occasions in each other’s company.

2. Communication; communication; communication!

3. Premarital sexual relationships are contrary to God’s intent (1 Cor. 6:12-20).


Christian prayer is NOT:

1. To give God information – Matt. 6:8.

2. Telling God what to do – Rom. 11:34.

3. Asking God to engineer a situation to the end we desire.

4. Something we do to please or appease God – Jn. 19:30.

5. A meritorious performance God expects of us; a duty or obligation of obedience.

6. An exercise to make us better, stronger, or more “spiritual.”

7. For therapeutic psychological adjustment, “good feelings.”

8. Self-instruction to gain a knowledge of God’s will.

9. Soliciting more “blessings” or “benefits” from God.

10. An evasion of the problems and anxieties of contemporary existence.

11. Superstitious, mystical or magical trance.

12. A spiritual “power-tool” to employ the “power of prayer.”

13. A discipline or devotional exercise that will lead us to godliness.

14. Demanding our rights before God.

15. Persistence and shameless haranguing until we get what we want.

16. A mechanical ritual or rote formulas.

17. An external religious action, pretentious and ostentatious – Matt. 6:5, 6.

18. Verbosity of meaningless repetition – Matt. 6:7.

19. A religious activity executed “on command” – litanies, rosaries, etc.

20. Prescribed by place, time or procedure.


Examples where honesty should be employed by Christians:

1. When completing income tax forms.

2. When selling an automobile.

3. When you are given too much change.

4. When you are told a rumor.

5. When you break something.

6. When you owe people money.

7. When someone calls and you do not want to talk to them.

8. When you are reminiscing and telling a story.

9. When you tell someone how much you paid for something.

10. When you are asked for your opinion or advice.

11. When you fill out a credit application.

12. When you give character references.


To worry is to assume a responsibility that is not necessarily ours to assume; failing to recognize that God is bigger than any problem we might have, and loves us enough to seek our highest good in the midst of every situation.


Worry is a form of humanistic self-orientation that thinks, “It’s up to me to take care of this situation,” and is thus a form of practical atheism, acting as if there is no God to deal with the situation, or that God doesn’t know or care about the situation.


Circumstances in which loneliness may be experienced. May feel lonely when:
1. Guilt causes you to feel separated from God – Ps. 25:16, from other men – Gen. 27:1-29; 32:24; 33:1-17.
2. You feel rejected, abandoned, deserted by others – Jn. 16:32; 2 Tim. 4:16, 17.
1. You are voluntarily or forcefully removed from safe, secure environment.
2. You experience the “let down” after a spiritual victory – I Kings 19:10, 14.
3. Previous successes or popularity have subsided.
4. You have suffered a defeat.
5. You are too busy chasing “success” to relate to others.
6. You are “burned out” after having tried to achieve by self-effort – Jn. 8:29.
7. You are separated from the group by leadership responsibilities, “lonely at the top” – Num. 11:14, 17; Deut. 1:9, 12; Matt 26:38-40.
8. You have suffered the loss of a loved one by death or divorce.
9. You are fearful and timid – I Jn. 4:18.
10. You feel inferior, unworthy, self-condemnation, insecure.
11. You are physically removed or separated from those you know and love.
12. Others reject or ostracize you for being different, or for nonconformity.
13. You fail to resolve conflict and misunderstanding; estrangement.
14. You fail to communicate; avoidance; repression; stuff emotions.
15. You have chosen to “stand alone” against world, sin, religion – Jer. 15:17.
16. Others are not enthused about your interests or project.
17. You don’t take the time to enjoy others and have fun together.
18. You have been prejudged, stereotyped, pegged, put in a box.
19. Your particular talents and abilities and personality are not appreciated.
20. You don’t fit in – economically, intellectually, politically, religiously, etc.
21. You don’t feel connected, bonded, able to relate – emotionally, spiritually.
22. Friends only relate on superficial level; won’t get serious and real.
23. You have been excluded from a particular social grouping.
24. You feel like an outsider, the “odd man out.”
25. Your present responsibilities (parenting, vocation, etc.) preclude or diminish the development of relationships.
26. You retire from your vocation and no longer relate to colleagues daily.
27. Another person is regarded as your “life,” and they can’t meet all your needs.
28. You do not feel a sense of oneness, unity and intimacy with your mate.
29. You have refused to receive the love and intimacy of your mate – SoS. 5:3-6.
30. You have been betrayed by a mate or a friend – Gen. 3:12.
31. You alienate others by your verbosity, accusations, insensitive comments.
32. You alienate others by using them in competitive or economic success.
33. You alienate others by criticism, negativism, sarcasm, pessimism, hostility, cruelty.
34. You alienate others by your selfishness, egotism, or spiritual pride.
35. You make work, projects, things, possessions more important than people.
36. You feel you cannot perform up to expectations.
37. Others are too preoccupied with their concerns to relate with you.
38. Crisis arises and no one offers to listen or assist.
39. You feel left behind by a fast-paced technological society.
40. Children grow up, go to school, leave home.
41. Isolated due to injury; secluded or ignored due to age (Ps. 71:9, 18).


What confession of sin is NOT:

1. Informing a human priest in the confession booth.

2. Giving God information. “God, You won’t believe what I’ve done.”

3. Speculating. “IF…I have sinned…”

4. Saying “I’m sorry…” “….just a joke!”

5. Asking/pleading to God for forgiveness for our sins. Forgiveness already available in Christ’s death.

6. Plea-bargaining for a lesser charge. “Yes…but….”

7. Emotional groveling; mental contortions.

8. Psychological catharsis. “Feel good when you get it off your chest”

9. Superficial or flippant incantation. (Sin was reason for Jesus’ death).

10. “Confessionalism” – (Excessive sin-consciousness; wallowing in weakness; focusing on ‘flesh’; navel-gazing introspection; “Worm-theology”; Pride of sinfulness; back-handed basis of spirituality; exhibitionism; revel in relating sinfulness in testimony; Who was the worst?).

11. Based on false established attitudes which create false-guilt and false-confession. Some try to agree with God that something is wrong, when God never said it is sin. But, if not done in faith, it is sin. (Rom. 14:23).


Confession is:

1. Ceasing to deceive ourselves – 1 John 1:8.

2. Ceasing to continue the defense mechanisms of denial, avoidance, distortion, cover-up.

3. Calling sin “sin.” Calling a spade a spade!

4. To recognize, admit, acknowledge, concede and declare our guilt of sin.

5. Part of repentance. A change of mental attitude leading to changed behavioral action.

6. Inclusive of asking forgiveness for wronging another person.

7. Inclusive of restitution – Num. 5:7; Lk. 19:8


The Holiness of God is not evidenced in women when they are brash, brassy, boisterous, brazen, head-strong, strong-willed, loud-mouthed, overly-talkative, having to have the last word, challenging, controlling, manipulative, critical, conceited, arrogant, aggressive, assertive, strident, interruptive, undisciplined, insubordinate, disruptive, dominating, domineering, or clamoring for power. Rather, women accept God’s holy order and character by being humbly and unobtrusively respectful and receptive in functional subordination to God, church leadership, and husbands.


Canon of the New Testament:

1. Early Christian writings gradually collected. Gospels. Paul’s writings (2 Peter 3:16).

2. Marcion, Gnostic heretic (139 A.D.) determined list of writings. Rejected O.T., revised Luke’s gospel, ten Pauline epistles. Restricted list.

3. Montanus claimed divine revelation. Expanded list.

4. Church responded to these attempts to expand or restrict.

5. Irenaeus, 180 A.D. cites 22 writings as acceptable: 4 gospels, Acts, 13 Pauline epistles, 1 Peter, 1, 2 John and Revelation.

6. Muratorian list – named after Italian Muratori (1740) who discovered such. Fragment dated late 2nd to 4th century. 22 books plus Apocalypse of Peter. Hebrews, 1,2 Peter, 3 John and James omitted.

7. Tertullian (150-230) – 22 books accepted: 4 gospels, Acts, 13 Pauline epistles, 1 Peter, 1 John, Jude, Revelation.

8. Origen (185-255). Three categories of writings:

a. Acknowledged: 4 gospels, 13 Pauline epistles, 1 Peter, 1 John, Acts, Revelation.

b. Disputed: 2 Peter, 2, 3 John, Hebrews, James and Jude; also Epistle of Barnabas, Shepherd of Hermas, Didache.

c. Heretical: Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Peter, etc.

9. Eusebius (260-340).

a. Acknowledged: 4 gospels, 14 Pauline epistles (Hebrews included), I Peter, I John, Acts.

b. Disputed: James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2, 3 John, Revelation. Spurious: Shepherd of Hermas, Epistle of Barnabas, Didache, Acts of Paul.

c. Heretical: Gospel of Thomas, Peter, Acts of Andrew etc.

10. Codex Sinaiticus (4th century). 27 books plus Epistle of Barnabas and Shepherd of Hermas.

11. Council of Laodicea (363) – 26 books. Revelation omitted.

12. Athanasius (367) – first time list includes the 27 books of present N.T.

13. Jerome’s Vulgate included 27 books of N.T.

14. Augustine (397), 3rd Council of Carthage, accepted 27 books of N.T.


Love is NOT:

1. Something you “fall into” – a black hole.

2. Infatuation. Emotional loss of control. “Flipped out…” “Couldn’t help myself.” Romanticism and sentimentalism. “Puppy love.” Boy-crazy; girl-crazy.

3. Evaluating another by external criteria. “She’s a #10.”

4. Selfish. Interested in “getting” to satisfy my needs.

5. Taking advantage of another (age, height, weight, looks, intellect, emotional maturity, spiritual maturity, social standings, social skills, psychological understanding, place of authority, financial superiority, etc.).

6. Improper need fulfillment. Need for love, acceptance, relating, bonding, belonging, to be valued, affirmed, excitement, identity, etc.

7. Lust. Hormones. Lasciviousness, sensuality. “Let’s get physical.”

8. Sex. “Making love.”

9. Idolatry. “……is my life.” Totally preoccupied in attention and time.


Love is: 1. Respectful of the other person’s values, standards and opinions. 2. Unselfish and unconditional. 3. A decision to relate to the other person at every level – spiritual, psychological and physical. 4. Giving of oneself to the other. 5. Responsible to seek the highest good of the other person “for better or for worse.” 6. God in action (Rom. 5:5; 1 John 4:8, 16).


Benefits of suffering:

1. Divine retribution.

2. Divine discipline (Pr. 3:11; Heb. 12:5-11).

3. Testing, proving (Gen. 22:1; Dt. 8:2, 16, Jas. 1:3; 1 Pet. 1:7).

4. Vicarious suffering (Num. 11:1-15; Hos. 1-3, Isa. 52:13-53:12).

5. Educational (Heb. 5:8).

6. Revelation (Jn. 9:2-3).

7. Repentance, seek God (Hos. 5:15; Isa. 19:22; 2 Cor. 7:9-10).

8. Self-denial (Lk. 22:42; 2 Cor. 1:8-9; 2 Cor. 12:7; Rom. 5:3-4; Rom. 8:29; 2 Cor. 4:10-11; Heb. 12:10; Jas. 1:2).

9. Solidarity – In suffering we band and bond together (Rom. 12:15; 1 Cor. 12:26).

10. Ministry of comfort (2 Cor. 1:3-4; Heb. 4:15).

11. Glorification (Rom. 8:17; 2 Cor. 4:17).


Wrath of God is not irrational, selfish passion of personal pique and malicious vindictiveness. It is the settled unacceptance and intolerance of evil that is contrary to the character of God.


A. Scriptures about God’s effecting conception:
Gen. 29:31 – “the Lord opened her (Leah’s) womb”
Gen. 30:22 – “God opened her (Rachel’s) womb”
Judges 13:3-5 – “committed to God from the womb”
Ruth 4:13 – “the Lord gave her conception”
Luke 1:15 – “filled with Holy Spirit while yet in his mother’s womb”
B. Scriptures about God’s involvement in forming unborn:
Job 10:8-12 – “God knit me together with bones and sinews and granted me life”
Psalm 127:3 – “the fruit of the womb is a reward”
Psalm 139:13-16 – “God weaved me in my mother’s womb”
Eccl. 11:5 – “bones are formed in the womb of the pregnant woman”
Isa. 49:1,5 – “the Lord called Me from the womb…formed Me from the womb”
Jere. 1:5 – “before I formed you in the womb I knew you; before you were born I consecrated you”
Luke 1:15 – “filled with Holy Spirit while yet in his mother’s womb”
Luke 1:39-44 – “the baby leaped in my womb for joy”
Gal. 1:15 – “set me apart from my mother’s womb, and called me through grace”
C. Scriptures to consider about alleged “sacredness” or “sanctity” of human life:
Gen. 1:26,27 – “God said, ‘Let us make man in our image’”
Psalm 8:3-8 – “God made man a little lower than God”
D. Scriptures to consider if abortion is murder:
Gen. 9:6 – “whoever sheds man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed”
Exod. 20:13 – “you shall not murder”
Exod. 23:7 – “do not kill the innocent or the righteous”
Prov. 6:17 – “God hates hands that kill innocent blood”
Amos 1:13,14 – “God punished those who ripped open the pregnant women of Gilead”
I Peter 4:15 – “do not let any of you suffer as a murderer”


Four wrong ways to deal with anger:

1. Repress. Hold it in, ignore, deny, push it under, stuff it.

a. Internally. Seethe with bitterness, jealousy, etc.

b. Externally. The “silent treatment” (Eph. 4:26).

2. Express. “Dump it;” “get it off your chest.”

a. Direct expression. Explode. Blow up (Gal. 5:20; Prov. 12:16; Prov. 14:29; Prov. 29:11; Prov. 29:22; Eccl. 7:9).

b. Indirect expression. “I’ll get even” (Lev. 19:18; Rom. 12:19).

c. Substitutionary expression. “Ventilation.”

3. Digress. Turn aside. Get your mind off of it.

4. Profess to be powerless. Make excuses. Disclaim responsibility.


Five correct ways to deal with anger:

1. Suppress. Restrain; subdue the negative expression (Prov. 29:11; Prov. 17:14; Prov. 20:3).

2. Assess. Evaluate the situation objectively.

a. Consider the other person’s perspective.

b. Consider your contribution to the problem (Matt. 7:3-5; James 1:19).

3. Confess. “Say the same thing as God” (I John 1:9).

4. Process. Proceed to make it right.

a. “Turn the other cheek” (Matt. 5:39).

b. Gentle answer (Prov. 15:1).

c. Meekness (Eph. 4:2; I Peter 3:15).

d. Forgiveness (Matt. 18:22; Col. 3:13).

e. Give a blessing (I Peter 3:9).

5. Access. In computer terminology this means “to connect with,” “to communicate with.” The foregoing behavioral expressions must be a result of the Christian having “accessed” with God (1 Peter 2:23).


Examples of selfish jealousy:

1. Jealous of another’s possessions, wealth, assets – (greed, coveting).

2. Jealous of another’s position, placement, job, advancement.

3. Jealous of another’s authority, power, leadership.
4. Jealous of another’s recognition, praise, prestige.
5. Jealous of another’s abilities, talents, skills.
6. Jealous of another’s accomplishments, achievements, success.

7. Jealous of another’s intelligence, logic, knowledge.

8. Jealous of another’s personality, social standing.

9. Jealous of another’s relationships, communication, intimacy, marriage.
10. Jealous of another’s loyalties, devotion, attachments.
11. Jealous of another’s age, youth, maturity, experience.

12. Jealous of another’s looks, appearance, beauty, health.

13. Jealous of another’s clothes, style, sophistication.

14. Jealous of another’s opportunities, privileges, advantages, good fortune.


Jealousy is a fervent desire to have things transpire as one desires.


Biblical understanding of the Lord’s Supper:
1. An act of obedience.
a. “Do this in remembrance of Me” – I Cor. 11:24.
b. An ordinance of the Church, ordained by Jesus as obedient act of remembrance.
2. An act of identification.
a. “Eat the Lord’s Supper” – I Cor. 11:20.
b. Jesus hosts the Supper for those who know Him and are identified with Him.
3. An act of covenant.
a. “This cup is the new covenant in My blood” – I Cor. 11:25.
b. New arrangement between God and men in Jesus Christ.
4. An act of participation.
a. “Communion in the blood and body of Jesus” – I Cor. 10:16.
b. Unified in “common union” of fellowship around Jesus Christ.
5. An act of thanksgiving.
a. “When He had given thanks He broke bread” – I Cor. 11:24.
b. Eucharist is transliteration of Greek “to give thanks.”
6. An act of representation.
a. “This is My body…this is My blood” – I Cor. 11:24, 25.
b. Must avoid crass materialistic literalism.
7. An act of commemoration.
a. “Do this in remembrance of Me” – I Cor. 11:24.
b. A memorial observance.
8. An act of examination.
a. “Let a man examine himself, and so let him eat” – I Cor. 11:28.
b. Self-examination .
9. An act of proclamation.
a. “As oft as you eat…you proclaim the Lord’s death” – I Cor. 11:26.
b. We proclaim that we are believers in the efficacy of Christ’s death, resurrection and life.
10. An act of anticipation.
a. “You proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes” – I Cor. 11:26.
b. Expectation of the consummation of Jesus’ work.


Various forms of pride:
1. Self-admiration – “Look at me!”
a. Natural – my abilities, talents, assets.
b. Spiritual – my spiritual gifts, my ministry.
2. Self-aggrandizement – “Don’t I look good/great?”
a. Natural – my looks, my importance.
b. Spiritual – my position in the church.
3. Self-attention – “Listen to me!”
a. Natural – my understanding and viewpoint.
b. Spiritual – my Biblical and theological knowledge.
4. Self-justification – “I am right!”
a. Natural – my way is the right way.
b. Spiritual – our doctrine and polity is right.
5. Self-sufficiency – “I can do it!”
a. Natural – my abilities, my leadership.
b. Spiritual – our programs will make it happen.
6. Self-aspiration – “Let me win!”
a. Natural – competitive spirit; one-up-manship.
b. Spiritual – our statistics will prove us successful.
7. Self-seeking – “Give me mine!”
a. Natural – my rights; what I deserve.
b. Spiritual – our political rights and physical edifice.
8. Self-exaltation – “Praise me!”
a. Natural – my credit, glory, commendation.
b. Spiritual – our procedures and success.


Underlying causes of legalism:

1. Humanistic concept of self-control – “I’m in control of how things go.”

2. Humanistic concept of self-effort, “works” – trying, striving, “I can do it.”

3. False security needs for defined parameters, limitations, borders

4. Work-ethic concept of strict reciprocity – “Get what you work for”

5. Punitive concept of getting what one deserves

6. Traditionalism of maintaining status quo

7. Simplism of dividing life into compartments with instant solutions; fundamentalism. Got a handle on it – all figured out. Instant solutions – don’t have to think or trust.

8. Fear of freedom, of decision-making responsibility (Rom. 8:15)

9. Security need for something that is fixed and static, concrete and tangible. Inordinate need to be safe and right

10. Favorite of sadomasochistic personalities; perfectionists, Pharisees.


Practical features of the expression of God’s love:
1. Love is not defined by the act, but by the character of God within the act.
2. Love precludes hypocrisy and play-acting.
3. Love is unselfish; not based on self-need or want.
4. Love is not conditioned on reciprocity or calculation of repayment.
5. Love doesn’t care who gets the credit.
6. Love is active; not merely passive or theoretical; love doesn’t loiter.
7. Love believes, trusts and expects God to overcome all things.
8. Love is directed toward people; not things, ideas, doctrines, principles.
9. Love of neighbor desires them to have everything you have, and more.
10. Love precludes resentment, covetousness, and judging another.
11. Love seeks to commend, not condemn.
12. Love is not conditioned on the lovability or action of the recipient.
13. Love is not fickle; it is unchanging and limitless.
14. Love precludes despair at the loss or absence of the person loved.
15. Love precludes favoritism and aversion.
16. Love does not engage in comparison.
17. Love is not possessive, seeking to own or control another person.
18. Love does not find its identity or life in the one loved.
19. Love is the antidote to fear and paranoia – I Jn. 4:18.
20. Love seeks the highest good of the other, with no thought of benefit to oneself.
21. Love involves self-denial, self-renunciation, personal sacrifice, humility.
22. Love is willing to suffer slights, hurts, abuse.
23. Love builds others up, nurtures, edifies; it is constructive, not destructive.
24. Love seeks to avoid grieving or offending another – Rom. 13:10; 14:15.
25. Love of one’s enemy removes his relation of power – Matt. 5:40.
26. Love precludes partiality, preference, distinction, exclusivism; it is universal and equal.
27. Love does not take the situation into one’s hand to resolve the problem.
28. Love does not preclude confrontation, opposition and discipline – Heb. 12:6; it is not always capitulatory or soft (“tough love”); cf. Matt. 10:34; Lk. 12:49.
29. Love cannot be coerced or obliged by law or moral principle and program.
30. Love is not retaliatory – Rom. 12:17; it turns the other cheek – Matt. 5:39.
31. Love does not dictate performance standards or expectations to others.
32. Love prompts one to take the initiative to be the first to act – Matt. 7:12.
33. Love dissolves the emotional blocks which keep us from sensitivity to others.
34. Love does not demand its personal rights.
35. Love excludes suspicion and mistrust.
36. Love allows one to be free to be man as God intended man to be.


Humanism is a philosophical premise that includes such concepts as:

1. Man is autonomous and independent

2. Man is his own center of reference

1. Man is self-generative and self-sufficient

2. Man has the potential to do anything he sets his mind to

3. Man is the cause of his own effects

4. Man is the source of his own activity

5. Man has a free-will to choose anything he desires – “sovereign will”

6. Man is innately good

7. Man is the subject and object of his own world

8. Man is the solution to his own problems

9. Man deserves to indulge his personal aspirations, personal gratifications, and personal reputation (cf. I Jn. 2:16)

10. Man is his own god


Contrariety of legalism to Christian gospel:

1. Legalism is contrary to the Grace dynamic of God in Jesus Christ.

2. Legalism is contrary to faith, our receptivity of God’s activity; a satanic substitute that supplants faith.

3. Legalism is contrary to the Lordship of Christ, wherein He directs and guides our lives.

4. Legalism is contrary to Christian obedience, which is “listening under” the direction of the living Lord Jesus Christ.

5. Legalism is contrary to the Spirit-led Christian life, wherein the Spirit of Christ enables and empowers. (Eph. 5:18).

6. Legalism is contrary to freedom in Christ, and the liberty that is to be realized in present kingdom living. (John 8:31, 32, 36; 2 Cor. 3:17; Gal. 5:1, 17).


Consequences of legalism:

1. Keeps people distanced and alienated from God. Afraid of God, the taskmaster. Afraid of God’s rejection. No assurance or security.

2. Guilt, condemnation (Rom. 8:1), accusation, disapproval (both objective and subjective).

3. Defeat, despair, frustration, futility. “It’s a losing battle. I can never do enough, be good enough, do it right and perfect as expected.” Burned out!

4. Self-destructive behavior; self-belittling, sense of worthlessness, low personal concept of oneself.

5. Hypocrisy. Play-acting; role-playing; lip-service (Matt. 15:8, 9). Contrived piety, perfunctory performance, pretense, ostentation.

6. Minimalization. What do I have to do to get by, to side-step the rules?

7. Impersonalization; shallow personal relationships because they relate to law rather that to Person of Jesus Christ and other persons.


Denies or distorts the biblical truths about:

1. God, being personal, infinite, eternal, singular, immutable, supernatural, sovereign, Spirit, transcendent, immanent, good, triune.

2. Jesus Christ, being deity, pre-existent, human, historical, conceived of Holy Spirit, savior of all mankind, resurrected, presently manifested.

3. Holy Spirit, being deity, personal, presently operative.

4. Man, being a creature, dependent, mortal, sinful, constituted of spirit and soul and body.

5. Sin, as transgressing God’s character, leading to death and judgment, and continuing to be manifested in Christian’s lives.

6. Salvation, as necessitated by sin, initiated by the grace of God, made available to all by the death and resurrection of Jesus, and received by faith alone.

7. Bible, as complete, final, authoritative, inspired, providentially preserved, and properly interpreted.


Brief history of Christian interpretation of sanctification:

1. Early church fathers (Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Polycarp) – though noting the grace of God, they emphasized a striving toward holiness.

2. Gnosticism – converts are perfect, set apart from the world.

3. Montanism – demanded separatism from unholy body of believers.

4. Clement of Alexandria – necessity for denial of world and bodily needs.

5. Pelagianism – holiness is result of self-willed moral effort.

6. Augustine – sanctification is God’s activity; not by human effort.

7. Bernard of Clairvaux – mystical personal piety by imitation of Jesus.

8. Peter Lombard – sanctifying grace by infusion of Spirit in believer.

9. Thomas Aquinas – no distinction between justification and sanctification; just infusion of God’s grace in man.

10. Council of Trent – grace inheres in soul of believer by Holy Spirit, and becomes permanent condition or attribute of believer.

11. Roman Catholic doctrine – misstated and overstated subjective implications of infused sanctifying grace, providing a boost of human ability toward perfectibility and divinization.

12. Reformers (Luther, Calvin, et al) – justification emphasized and separated from sanctification; insistence on absence of human merit.

13. Protestant doctrine – over-reacted and overstated objective implications of forensic, legal and extrinsic factors of justification and sanctification.

14. Pietists – reverted to moralistic behavioral standards of holy living, in reaction to epistemological emphasis on doctrine.

15. John Wesley – “entire sanctification,” perfect holiness possible in this life; necessity of “second blessing” experience; Holiness Movement.

16. Karl Barth – reemphasized subjective implications of Christocentric and ontological dynamic of holiness. Evangelical Protestants for the most part resisted; Catholic theologians recognized and appreciated.


Extremist egalitarian assertions are based on false premises:

1. Absolute equality of rights, privileges, responsibilities and authority produces the chaos of no one having ultimate responsibility or authority.

2. The egalitarian premises of socialistic communism and radical democratization are equally unworkable.

3. Identity, value and worth are not found in gender-function, but in a personal Being beyond ourselves.


Is suffering the will of God? Does He orchestrate suffering?

Job 2:10 – “shall we accept good from God and not accept adversity?”

Jer. 32:42 – “I brought all this calamity on this people.”

Amos 3:6 – “if a calamity occurs in a city, has not the Lord done it?”

1 Pet 3:17 – “if God should will it so, that you suffer for doing right.”

1 Pet. 4:19 – “those who suffer according to the will of God.”


Forms of temptation:

1. Temptation to act – 1 Jn. 2:16.

a. “lust of the eyes” – Personal aspiration.

b. “lust of the flesh” – Personal gratification.

c. “boastful pride of life” – Personal reputation.

2. Temptation to react.

a. Fight – anger, hostility, wrath, resentment, bitterness.

b. Fright – fear, anxiety, worry.

c. Flight – avoidance, apathy, escape, withdrawal.


“Concern” means to “have an interest in, give attention to, be engaged by a situation, as a matter of consideration or responsibility.” “Worry” is a disquieted uneasiness of mind, an anxious apprehension concerning an impending or anticipated situation; fretting about a foreboding misfortune or failure (“worried” and “anxious” are used as synonyms)… “Concern” becomes “worry” when we fail to relate the situation that confronts us to the source of sufficiency in God.


Biblical significance of the blood of Jesus: 1. Redemption. a. Acts 20:28 – “church of God purchased with His own blood.” b. Eph. 1:7 – “we have redemption through His blood.” c. 1 Pet. 1:9 – “redeemed…with precious blood.” d. Rev. 5:9 – “purchased for God with His blood, men from every tribe.” 2. Propitiation. a. Rom. 3:25 – “God displayed Jesus as a propitiation in His blood.” 3. Cleansing. a. Heb. 9:14 – “blood of Christ…will cleanse your conscience.” b. 1 John 1:7 – “blood of Jesus cleanses us from all sin.” c. Rev. 7:14 – “washed their robes in the blood of the Lamb.” 4. Forgiveness. a. Eph. 1:7 – “redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses.” b. Heb. 9:22 – “without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.” c. Rev. 1:5 – “released us from our sins by His blood.” 5. Access to God. a. Eph. 2:13 – “brought near to God by the blood of Christ.” b. Heb. 10:19 – “confidence to enter Holy Place by blood of Jesus.” 6. Reconciliation. a. Col. 1:20 – “reconciled, made pace through the blood of the cross.” 7. Justification. a. Rom. 5:9 – “having been justified by his blood.” 8. Sanctification. a. Heb. 13:12 – “that He might sanctify the people through His blood.” 9. Conquest of evil. a. Rev. 12:11 – “overcame…because of the blood of the Lamb.” 10. Basis of new covenant. a. Heb. 13:20 – “through the blood of the eternal covenant.” 11. Lord’s Supper. a. Matt. 26:28 – “This is the new covenant in My blood.” b. I Cor. 10:16 – “the cup of blessing…a sharing in the blood of Christ.”